Gregorio de Falco was praised for ordering stricken ship’s captain, Francesco Schettino, to get back on board

He was the Italian hero to Francesco Schettino’s villain: a coastguard official who, in the days after the Costa Concordia disaster, became a symbol of responsibility in nation that was horrified by the allegedly reckless behaviour of the cruise ship’s captain. On Thursday Italians were yet again engaged in a collective frenzy over straight-talking Gregorio de Falco.

The 50-year-old has said he is being transferred out of operational service at the Livorno coastguard and into administrative duties, prompting anger among those who remember his bracing words to Schettino on the night of the tragedy and despair over a country that they say does not know how to treat its heroes.

After recordings of the heated dialogue between De Falco and Costa Concordia’s skipper were released the coastguard official was hailed as “the voice of duty” by newspaper La Repubblica, in which 32 people died. His command “Vada a bordo, cazzo!” (“Get on board, for fuck’s sake!” was even emblazoned on T-shirts.

Federico Gelli, an MP in Italy’s centre-left Democratic party called for the reasons for De Falco’s transfer to be investigated.

“In the news media of the world he became the symbol of the Italy that tries to portray a different image from a disaster of this kind. This removal … deserves public clarification, even if to dispel potential suspicions that it is connected with the trial going on in Grosseto.”

In that trial, Schettino faces charges including multiple manslaughter and abandoning ship, which he denies.

A row erupted in August at Rome’s Sapienza University after it emerged Schettino had been invited to address a seminar organised by one of its professors. As the Costa Concordia was towed away from Giglio this summer, photographs emerged of the former captain partying on the island of Ischia.

“We are a country that rewards the Schettinos and punishes the De Falcos. That prefers buffoons to those who quietly get on with the job,” wrote one Twitter user, @mariogiordano5, as the hashtag #DeFalco trended.

“Italy punishes its best men,” commented another, @francofontana43.

In an interview with La Repubblica, De Falco said he was saddened by the transfer, which he had not requested.

taken from:

Posted by: gurglin | October 8, 2013

The German way of distorting reality

Languages are amazing tools, and are one of the most evident expressions of the culture of a population. They have rules, and norms, and tend to reduce reality to their standards. And also to distort reality. That is the case of names given by Germans to Italian football teams.


Many years ago a German guy asked me what was my football team, and I replied that it was Roma (the Italian name for Rome). Then he asked me “which one, AS or Lazio?” I fell out of the blue and replied “what do you mean? There is one and only football team called Roma, and that is my football team!”

That was a beautiful example of two people talking about the very same thing, and something quite trivial, but according to two different linguistic criteria, or even benchmarks.

As you can spot reading provided current league table (where Roma is first! Daje Roma, daje!) Germans write the name of the team and couple it with the name of the city where those are originated. With my team it would be Roma Rom (same story for Milan, Napoli, Fiorentina, etc.), which is terribly stupid. And what did they invent? Something even less appropriate! They just cancelled the real name of the team and used the prefix AS (Associazione Sportiva, Sport Club in English, Sportverein in German) like it was the real name. They distorted reality, but their rules and conventions were safe!

Oh, those Germans (quoted from Boney M)


PS: The proper table should in reality be:

The real name

(the one used in Italy and abroad)

…or, if you really see the necessity of writing the juridical name and the originating city too (which is fine in a stock exchange market, less when dealing about sport)…

1) Roma 1) AS Roma SpA (Rom)
2) Napoli 2) SSC Napoli (Neapel)
3) Juventus 3) FC Juventus SpA (Turin)
4) Inter 4) FC Internazionale SpA (Mailand)

SpA means “società per azioni”, it stays for Ltd, and therefore means “Public Limited Company”

Posted by: gurglin | October 15, 2012

Linux OSs for old PCs (2012)

I own a Compaq Presario 14XL250, bought in year 2000, which back then was on the cutting edge: one of the first laptop having a DVD-Rom (no burner… it was way too early for a burner) instead of a CD-Rom, 2 USB plugs and only EXTERNAL floppy drive, predicting the sunset of floppies. It has a Celeron 600MHz chip, 184M RAM + 8 RAM for the Video (64 original + 128 added), Trident Cyberblade video card, Chipset VIA PLE133… characteristics that today would make it almost unusable. Almost 😉

On the internet it is possible to find some general workarounds with Linux, especially for avoiding problems with the monitor, which in some cases (like with PuppyLinux) must be configured manually: vga=792, SVGA 1024×768 @ 70 Hz ; 50-70 Hz. In other words, if you cannot choose Xvesa at boot when getting the Video Wizard screen, with Xorg at “monitor type” choose option h31.5-48-5v50-70 LCD Panel 1024×768 and then at “select video mode” choose either 1024x768x16 or 1024x768x24. Easy!

My Presario has a lame 6GB HDD, which I decided to divide in three partitions of different sizes, and use it just for hosting the OS (or better, for installing three different OSs), using some external USB flash drives or HDD for documents and stuff. My last OSs were AntiX 11 on a 3.32 GiB partition (the biggest), Puppy Linux 4.3.2. V3 (it is a RC… there never was a final release… it is something like and aborted project) on a 1.80 partition, and GeeXBox 1.4 (it weights only 30,98 MiB!) on a tiny 91 MiB partition, plus 399 MiB dedicated to the Swap.

Given the fact I have so poor CPU and RAM, I followed some hints and increased the SWAP (sda2) from 400 to 700 MiB, hoping it could speed up a bit things. sda1 is now 3.22 GiB (3300 MiB) and sda3 1.60 GiB (1637 MiB). The last partition sda4 remains of 89 MB (and only 29 used with GeeXBox).

Every now and then I like to “taste” different “flavours”, also because I like to get the most updated version of a distribution, and sometimes the upgraded version of what I used is no more compatible with my laptop, or I do not like it, therefore I have to look for something else.

For instance, in the past I have used for a while Mandrake and ArkLinux (yes, spelled with K), but had to give up due to the “steroids” that made them too heavy for both my chipset and RAM.

Anyway, on Distrowatch I found an interesting list of Linux Operating Systems for old PCs, and decided to have a look to some of them.

For avoiding burning OSs into CDs or, even worse, installing them on the Laptop, first I tried following OS with UNetbootin-windows-575, and tried to boot them.

Lets start! Between squared parenthesis I put the weight of the ISO.

* Active VectorLinux (VL7.0-STD-GOLD-LIVE) [699 MB]– I tried this one on another PC, a desktop PC, with UNetbootin, and have to say it is quite complete. I don’t like its Mac-like looking, but it is plenty of applications. I also have its light version (VL7.0-LIGHT.iso) [641 MB], which actually did not start at first attempt with UNetbootin. I therefore had to install it. I installed it twice, the first time choosing the “light” option; the second time the most basic “barebone“. Vector light is ok, even if I don’t like the system manager, the USB “hot plug” system (not integrated with the file manager). Barebone just has the very simple JWM as windows manager, and generally speaking has quite a bad usability. I am sorry, cannot understand how it works, and don’t feel like wasting time on it… Vector linux light gave me a few problems with the external wi-fi card (with Ralink microchip), which was possible to solve just adding wlan0 to Wicd, in preferences Window under wireless interface blank box. But the connection is VERY slow! With “barebone” I could not even find where Wicd was…

* TinyMe-Acorn [230 MB] – also tried just with UNetbootin, it is minimal, very nice, and with very few software. It is a development of the UnityLinux project, currently based on Mandriva. The browser did not work perfectly, and system doesn’t halt properly. But it is still nice. I think it would work even on machines older than my Presario.

* SWIFT Linux [651 MB] – as we can read from the site “Swift Linux combines the superior software, hardware, and codec support of Linux Mint with a lightweight and user-friendly interface inspired by Puppy Linux and antiX Linux. You can have a lightweight distro WITHOUT sacrificing utility”. It is based on a 2.6.39-2-486 kernel. I run with UNetbootin, but fails booting (tried booting options: default, compatibility mode, swift normal Linux). Then I decide to download, burn on a CD and run SWIFT linux diet (it is a live OS, the ISO is of 587 MB), which did boot. It looks very much like AntiX, but slightly better than current AntiX 12. After installation Diet SwiftLinux weights 1.89 GiB. I cannot log-in, though. I installed the distribution twice, then I tried to install the “normal” version (it took me around 90 minutes!), and still had the very same problem: it doesn’t recognise passwords! Neither mine, nor the “demo” and “root” username/passwords. Is it a bug? How can I solve it? I also tried Swiftlinux-0_2_0-taylorswift.iso [651 MB], which tries to boot with unetbootin-windows-575, but doesn’t display anything. Had to burn on disc, but once on, it has an annoying music.

* AntiX-12-486 [698 MB] – I firstly tried to run it with UNetbootin on another PC, but, as for the precedent release, on that PC it “froze” as soon as I opened the screen. Installed on Presario, it seems heavier than previous version, too heavy for my laptop. Moreover, even in the choice of software (such as the standard file browser) it seems worse than the previous (very good!) version M11. Too bad! Have to migrate 😉

* GALPon MiniNo (Minimum-alguadaira_i486) [426 MB] – it does not boot from USB with UNetbootin, but that was already explained on the site… set up and run as live CD is minimal graphically, but with a lot of software. It looks VERY nice. For further software installations it refers to the deb repository, therefore there is almost an endless amount of software available for downloading. Once installed it occupied 1.3G, as to say 74% of my sda3… quite a lot. I thought It could replace Puppy as second OS on my Laptop, if only… worked: I have problems both with the live version and after having installed it, because most software don’t work. Quite a shame…

* Absolute-13,50 (based on Slackware) [700 MB] – This is not a live distro, so I had to install it on my Presario (it took around an hour!), occupying 3.20 GiB out of 3.32! WOW! Quite big! It did not boot due to LILO problems. I reinstalled the ISO, choosing the expert LILO configuration, but did not solve the problem. I therefore rebooted the PC with PuppyLinux WARY in the DVD tray, run it and installed grub from there. I am using it right now (as long as my laptop doesn’t overheat), writing with LibreOffice, one of the several applications available in this distribution. Absolute is just great! It is one of the best OS for old PCs I have ever seen, and would definitely be my choice as “predominant” OS, if only… really were for old PCs: it is in fact too heavy for my old Compaq laptop capabilities. Absolute 14 is very nice too, looks a lot like Vector linux in its light version. It is an almost complete system (Chrome is the main browser, which I don’t like, and there is no LibreOffice) but it weights around 3 GiB. I tried to install LibreOffice (which didn’t appear in the menu) and completely filled my 3.32 GiB partition! I therefore had to increase the partition up to 3.65 GiB (3737 MB), shrinking the other “major” one from 1.80 Gib (1839 MiB) to 1.46 (1500 MiB). Sadly enough, it is way too heavy for my laptop, and cannot use it.

* Connos-0.9.1. [391 MB] – this is not a live distribution. After installation: it is minimal, nice, but “weighs” 1.7 GB while offering very few programs, and gives me a problem with the monitor (I have to push ctrl + alt + f8 and then ctrl + alt + f7 to get an undersized screen) because the video card is not auto-detected. The solution here is to play with the /etc/inittab, uncommenting “id:3:initdefault” and commenting “id:5:initdefault”, changing the runlevel manually (to 3 instead of 5). Then – with nano or mcedit – one should create the file /etc/X11/xorg.conf and edit it to your needs or copy an existing xorg.conf file from another system to ConnochaetOS. As soon as the xorg.conf file exists, it is used by the xserver and no auto-detection of the screen etc. is done. I think it doesn’t worth further investigation or usage.

* PuppyWary 5.3 [137 MB] – once installed, it only weights 453.34 MiB, just a miracle! It seems the usual great “puppylinux” by Barry Kauler, this time based on kernel I seems better than Puppy 4.2.1, but cannot say if it is better than 4.3.2, though. Maybe not, but it probably is at the same level: the fact would be a compliment in any case, considering the high quality standard reached by previous puppy old-pc focussed version… before the strange compabiliy-convergence with Ubuntu that endangered Puppy’s “philosophy”.

* GeeXBoX 2.0 [72 MB] and GeeXBoX 3.0 [136 MB] – they are completely different from previous 1.x versions. On GeexBox 1.x you just had to click on a file, and it played/showed it, no matter what it was (a song, a video or a picture). Just brilliant! GeeXBox 2.0 and 3.0 on the contrary are based on xbmc, and therefore you first have to “enter” the specific management area, choosing beforehand either the “video”, or the “pictures” or the “music” section. I would consider such a change a worsening. It also has some other useless utilities (like weather forecast… who the hell need a weather forecast system on a mediacenter OS?), instead of, for instance, a PDF reader, which would have extended the range of readable images (a PDF document is a picture, in the end). 3.0 seems better than 2.0, though, but it has a HUGE iso, something like 9 times bigger than 1.x! Anyway, they are WAY to heavy for my Presario, because as soon as I installed either of them, I simply could not use the OS. Unbelievable, for a distribution that should target old PCs! Project REJECTED! I was happy to reinstall the tiny (a 18MB ISO!) GeeXBoX 1.2.4

* CrunchBang-10-20120207-i386 [662 MB], available in two releases for 32-bit PCs (and other two for 64-bit), one with the stable 2.6.32 Linux kernel and 7.5, and the less tested BPO, with Linux version 3.2 and 7.6.  CrunchBang freezes as soon as it starts X with unetbootin-windows-575. I had the usual problems with the monitor, which I overcome clicking ctrl + alt + F9. Based on Debian (I like it), it seems quite minimal in the graphics, which is also good; and terribly looks like Mint (a black mint), which is a nice OS. It seems quite a complete distribution, and has a good software selection: Thunar is its nice windows manager, VLC the Media Player. Plus the predisposition of installing other software like LibreOffice.

* Papuglinux-11.1a  [258 MB], already 1 year old, doesn’t start with unetbootin-windows-575, even if it is a live distribution. Burned on CD, it gives me problems with X. I managed to use it clicking ctrl + alt + F9. This is a very minimal OS. It uses Rox as a window manager, which allows to access USB drives. I do prefer systems that directly detect inserted USB drives. Cannot access WI-FI using my external Ralink card. Mouse is fast but not precise at all. Cannot see how to adjust and change settings, such as time, screen, etc. I only found three possible keyboards settings, English, Polish and French, none of them is my mother tongue. Nice, fast and light, but far from being perfect for my purposes.

* Legacy-OS-4-Mini  [475 MB], based on 3 years old Puppy 4.2.1 (why not on the last official 4.3.1 release of the 4 series?), it freezes at boot with unetbootin-windows-575 at the time of starting X. I had the same problem booting using a burned CD. I think it has to do with Xorg, because everything went on smoothly using Xvesa. Strange. What can I say? It is just beautiful! All known advantages of Puppy, the stability of the 4th series plus an outstanding number of applications, mostly based on KDE (I have always preferred Gnome, though). Apart from mentioned problem at booting, everything works perfectly! Legacy OS 4 derives from puppy 4.2.1 (kernel and with KDE 3.5.7, which cannot access ext4 formatted partitions. I hope next releases will be based on the Release Candidate (but very stable) 4.3.2 (with kernel or Barry’s release for old machines Wary 5.3. Once installed, Legacy weights 1309 MB.


“Normal PC” (not very old PC) Linux Operating Systems tested on a desktop PC, booting from USB using UNetbootin

* MythBuntu – I do not understand how it works… I know it is for mediacentres, though

* Linuxmint-13-cinnamon-dvd-32bit – not bad at all … it seems an improved version of Ubuntu

Posted by: gurglin | October 11, 2012

A country of «coattos»

«Coatto» is one of the most beautiful and meaningful words in the Roman language. It comes from Latin past participle «coactus», meaning «forced», «constrained». Generally, it labels people living in the outskirts of Rome, normally considered vulgar, uncivil and arrogant homunculuses. However, more recently the term has been associated to «posh posers», so that currently «coatto» can be translated in English with the expression «rude, high-handed, conceited fashion victim».

Nowadays – regardless of his/her geographical origins – a «coatto» above all:

• keeps on making a huge (mis)use of English words in any context, especially out of context, because he/she has to show off (he/she can’t help it!), but also because his/her Italian is quite poor;
• changes cell phone every year (99 cases out 100 chooses an iPhone);
• LURVES Apple products! He/she NEEDS them! He/she says they are well-refined, they are cool and fashion, but the reality is he/she MUST have all of the most recent Apple releases! Just for showing off he/she has them!
• wears dark glasses even with a cloudy weather;
• is a salsa dancer;
• just listens to hit-parade music;
• goes around in SUV, even if had to sell the house for buying one;
• if he/she cannot buy a SUV, a Smart is the perfect solution, so that he/she can make all the more unbelievable road traffic offences

«Coattos» are cheap people, but of course there also are some gender-based differences:

• men: they dye the hair, always are perfectly shaved and wear a tie even at the seaside;
• women: they show off their flesh as much as they can (mainly with plunging necklines and belt-skirts up at the crotch) and wear high heel shoes also for going to the supermarket.

In other words, a «coatto» is a slave of fashion and trends, a self-constriction produce which destroys the dignity of a human being, to make pure standardized vulgarity out of it.

Posted by: gurglin | October 4, 2012

Infrastructure building process in Italy

When considering the amounts of public money spent in Italy in infrastructures, I would suggest to split the verb “spent” into “invested” and “wasted”. Sadly enough I do not have data, but I assume no more than 20% of spent public money goes to the actual realisation of projects for its REAL cost, while the rest is dispersed in:

1) the production of tonnes of useless (but expensive) projects, which only purpose is to support politicians in their electoral campaigns;

2) money for the so called consultants and experts, people who hardly know anything about the matter they should advise on, but get loads of money;

3) final construction costs multiplied by ten respect to the original estimated costs;

4) and, last but not least, of course corruption and bribery!

Moreover, we do not dare to forget the FAKE construction of infrastructures. Take for instance the Strait of Messina Bridge or the fourth (“D”) metro line in Rome. After the public notice and the call, it is ALWAYS the very same construction companies that win the bid. All of them (both the public part and the entrepreneurial side) already know the construction of the given infrastructure will never start, but they sign contracts with huge penalty clauses… Construction companies just have to wait a few years without doing nothing and then, when the political “colour” of the counterpart changes (be at local or at national level) they can sue the public side (be the State or a local administration), and put in their pockets billions of euros with almost no expense.

All this has to do with crony capitalism (which is a fake liberism), sadly enough the only ever existed in Italy, and the cultural & factual replacement of economy (investment and development) with finance (speculation and erosion). As to say, let masonry, criminal organisations and banks (if we still manage to distinguish among them) rule the world!

Just to give you an example of the confusion between economy and finance, consider in Italy financial raiders are labelled as “entrepreneurs”…

Posted by: gurglin | September 11, 2012

The 9/11 attacks and 911 emergency number…

It is hard to believe the terrorist attacks on the WTC towers on 9/11 and phone number 911, the emergency number to dial in the USA, were just a coincidence.

Terrorists pick 9/11 on purpose, because from one side they just wanted to take the piss of Americans, on the other they symbolically meant to “call” the national emergency for the USA.

Posted by: gurglin | May 3, 2011

The tragedy of the Commons

What are the commons? They are resources collectively owned or shared between or among populations. These resources are said to be “held in common” and can include everything from natural resources and common land to software. A public space is a specific common, a social space that is open and accessible to all.

In Italy things are different. Roms and homeless people coming from abroad (mainly eastern countries) have invaded the territory and transformed public spaces in their place. Several areas (most parks and gardens) were “conquered” by those people, who turned those places into their “houses”, forcing local administrations to declare them off limits for Italians. As a consequence, Italian people cannot access those spaces any more.

Moreover, hundred of thousands of Rumanian and Nigerian prostitutes as well as South American transvestites invaded the streets (check Rome streets on Google Earth!), day and night, everywhere… most of them reduced to slavery by foreign criminals/pimps.

In Italy there is a tragedy within the tragedy of the commons…

Posted by: gurglin | April 24, 2011

No vote rights for foreigners

In Italy the question of giving foreigners the suffrage in political and administrative elections has been raised by politicians a few times. Media – always brainwashing the population – want to convince people there are some ethical reasons for either decisions. In reality, the real question lies on the possible advantages for the different political parties, and how weather to support the introduction of this innovation or to preserve this right just to Italian citizens might be useful for their propaganda.

Political franchise in Italy has a major role: the exchanges “vote-for-money” and “vote-for-job”. Having the right to vote means citizens can sell their vote (I think in the south of Italy and abroad it costs around 500 Euros each… ask Dell’Utri, he knows more) to political parties, while ensuring to a given party a lifetime commitment (voting the same party) is the only way for getting a job in the civil service… quid pro quo is the “ethics” behind this labour market, pillar of many Italian facts.

Would these thousands of unskilled and almost not alphabetized Italian people accept to jeopardize their right of getting a lifetime wage without working (this is what they do at “work”) by some newcomers? We do not dare to forget foreigners do those types of works Italians do not do any more simply because unskilled and unprofessional Italians have the privilege of getting a wage without working, hired as civil servants… Once a Moroccan, a Chinese or a Rumanian like any other Italian citizen had the powerful franchise tool in his hands, why would he not take advantage of the “right” of getting a decent job (it actually means “wage”) just accepting the “court” paid by political parties interested in buying his/her vote? Considering that even a dead corpse would be fit enough for working in the public administration, what would prevent also people who do not speak Italian from getting a job where you do not have to work?

Posted by: gurglin | April 19, 2011

If they go to jail, how could they rule the country?

The bunch of criminals who sit in the Italian Parliament and the powers they represent such as the economic lobbies very keen in breaking the laws and the group of organised crime (Mafia, Camorra, ‘Ndrangheda, etc) decided there are some articles of the Italian Constitution which interfere with their activities, and must be changed or removed!

They do not like the following:

Section I
The Organisation of the Judiciary
Art. 101
Justice is administered in the name of the people.
Judges are subject only to the law.
Art. 102
Judicial proceedings are exercised by ordinary magistrates empowered and
regulated by the provisions concerning the Judiciary.
Extraordinary or special judges may not be established. Only specialised
sections for specific matters within the ordinary judicial bodies may be
established, and these sections may include the participation of qualified
citizens who are not members of the Judiciary.
The law regulates the cases and forms of the direct participation of the
people in the administration of justice.
Art. 103
The Council of State and the other bodies of judicial administration have
jurisdiction over the protection of legitimate rights before the public
administration and, in particular matters laid out by law, also of subjective
The Court of Accounts has jurisdiction in matters of public accounts and
in other matters laid out by law.
Military tribunals in times of war have the jurisdiction established by law.
In times of peace they have jurisdiction only for military crimes committed
by members of the armed forces.
Art. 104
The Judiciary is a branch that is autonomous and independent of all other
The High Council of the Judiciary is presided over by the President of the
The first president and the general prosecutor of the Court of Cassation are
members by right.
Two thirds of the members are elected by all the ordinary judges belonging
to the various categories, and one third are elected by Parliament in joint
session from among university professors of law and lawyers with fifteen
years of practice.
The Council elects a vice-president from among those members designated
by Parliament.
Elected members of the Council remain in office for four years and cannot
be immediately re-elected.
They may not, while in office, be registered in professional rolls, nor serve
in Parliament or on a Regional Council.
Art. 105
The High Council of the Judiciary, in accordance with the regulations of
the Judiciary, has jurisdiction for employment, assignments and transfers,
promotions and disciplinary measures of judges.
Art. 106
Judges are appointed through competitive examinations.
The law on the regulations of the Judiciary allows the appointment, also by
election, of honorary judges for all the functions performed by single
Following a proposal by the High Council of the Judiciary, university
professors of law and lawyers with fifteen years of practice and registered
in the special professional rolls for the higher courts may be appointed for
their outstanding merits as Cassation councillors.
Art. 107
Judges may not be removed from office; they may not be dismissed or
suspended from office or assigned to other courts or functions unless by a
decision of the High Council of the Judiciary, taken either for the reasons
and with the guarantees of defence established by the provisions
concerning the organisation of Judiciary or with the consent of the judges
The Minister of Justice has the power to originate disciplinary action.
Judges are distinguished only by their different functions.
The state prosecutor enjoys the guarantees established in the prosecutor’s
favour by the provisions concerning the organisation of the Judiciary.
Art. 108
The provisions concerning the organisation of the Judiciary and the judges
are laid out by law.
The law ensures the independence of judges of special courts, of state
prosecutors of those courts, and of other persons participating in the
administration of justice.
Art. 109
The legal authorities have direct use of the judicial police.
Art. 110
Without prejudice to the authority of the High Council of the Judiciary, the
Minister of Justice has responsibility for the organisation and functioning
of those services involved with justice.
Section II
Rules on Jurisdiction
Art. 111
Jurisdiction is implemented through due process regulated by law.
All court trials are conducted with adversary proceedings and the parties
are entitled to equal conditions before an impartial judge in third party
position. The law provides for the reasonable duration of trials.
In criminal law trials, the law provides that the alleged offender shall be
promptly informed confidentially of the nature and reasons for the charges
that are brought and shall have adequate time and conditions to prepare a
defence. The defendant shall have the right to cross-examine or to have
cross-examined before a judge the persons making accusations and to
summon and examine persons for the defence in the same conditions as the
prosecution, as well as the right to produce all other evidence in favour of
the defence. The defendant is entitled to the assistance of an interpreter in
the case that he or she does not speak or understand the language in which
the court proceedings are conducted.
In criminal law proceedings, the formation of evidence is based on the
principle of adversary hearings. The guilt of the defendant cannot be
established on the basis of statements by persons who, out of their own free
choice, have always voluntarily avoided undergoing cross-examination by
the defendant or the defence counsel.
The law regulates the cases in which the formation of evidence does not
occur in an adversary proceeding with the consent of the defendant or
owing to reasons of ascertained objective impossibility or proven illicit
All judicial decisions shall include a statement of reasons.
Appeals to the Court of Cassation in cases of violations of the law are
always allowed against sentences and against measures affecting personal
freedom pronounced by ordinary and special courts. This rule can only be
waived in cases of sentences by military tribunals in time of war.
Appeals to the Court of Cassation against decisions of the Council of State
and the Court of Accounts are permitted only for reasons of jurisdiction.
Art. 112
The public prosecutor has the obligation to institute criminal proceedings.
Art. 113
The judicial safeguarding of rights and legitimate interests before the
bodies of ordinary or administrative justice is always permitted against
acts of the public administration.
Such judicial protection may not be excluded or limited to particular kinds
of appeal or for particular categories of acts.
The law determines which judicial bodies are empowered to annul acts of
public administration in the cases and with the consequences provided for
by the law itself.

The Italian Parliament currently is the core of legislative powers and organised crime… Changing this part of the Italian constitution would be a necessary step for officially merging the two sides of the same medal.

Posted by: gurglin | April 15, 2011

Some typical mistakes made by foreigners

1) NO, the course “bolognesa spaghetti” is not an Italian phrase (it is grammatically wrong), neither an Italian recipe, and I personally heard it for the first time either in England or Germany. It might be an American course, the light version of another spaghetti plate full of meat, the disgusting “meatball spaghetti”.

You can now find “spaghetti bolognesa” (probably spelled as “spaghetti alla bolognese”) on the menu of some cheap touristy restaurants in Italy as well, because it is what tourists ask for. In Italy there is something similar to it called “pasta al ragù”, which is prepared with egg pasta, not durum wheat spaghetti.

2) “Risotto” is rice with a sauce, any kind of sauce, more or less like pasta. One specific version of it, done in Lombardy, is called “Risotto alla Milanese”. This one is what foreigners call risotto, neglecting it is just one type of risotto, and not THE risotto.

3) No, in Italy almost nobody drinks wine while eating pizza. Only foreigners do that. We drink beer while eating pizza. ALWAYS.

4) Yes, you can expect people singing “O sole mio” for you in Venice or Rome as much as you can expect Andalusian flamenco dancers whistling for you Wagner’s “Ride of the Valkyries”.

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